Bylaws are written provisions describing how day-to-day operations of a corporation will be conducted. A corporation's activities are governed, in order of precedence, by statute, corporate charter, and bylaws.
Before engaging in a business practice, individuals and companies may seek the view of the U.S. Department of Justice on the legality of the business practice under federal antitrust law. The procedure, known as a Business Review, allows persons to ask the Department of Justice for a statement of its current enforcement intentions. Although the Department of Justice is not authorized to provide advisory opinions to private parties, its business review procedure does allow such parties to seek a statement of present enforcement intentions.
The duty of disclosure is a component of the duty of loyalty, but it also implicates the director's obligation to act with due care and in good faith. As part of the duty of care, a director should reveal all relevant material information that he possesses about a transaction to all who are in the position of making a decision about that transaction. The director has a duty to make an informed decision because it will ultimately affect the corporate interest and welfare.
Protection for whistleblowers under the Clean Air Act
Securities and Exchange Commission rules regulate information that must be provided to the public by broker dealers who serve as New York, American, or other national exchange specialists or as Nasdaq market makers. Such broker dealers in effect trade for their own accounts as well as for customers. They thus are required to follow Commission Rules 11Ac1-1 and 11Ac1-4 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, 17 CFR 240.11Ac1-1 and 17 CFR 240.11Ac1-4, designed to increase the amount of public information regarding quotes and order handling.
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